History of Pakistan

Political History of Pakistan
Administrative divisions: 4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, North-West Frontier Province, Punjab, Sindh  [176th of 189]
Administrative divisions (note): the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region includes Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas
Capital city: Islamabad
Civil and political liberties: 5.50 (2001)  [41st of 140]
Constitution: 10 April 1973, suspended 5 July 1977, restored with amendments 30 December 1985; suspended 15 October 1999
Democratic institutions rating: -6.00 (1999)  [120th of 140]
Election results: National Assembly: 20 october 2002 (41.8 %)

% 342




Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians PPPP 25.8 71
Pakistan Muslim League (Quaid-e-Azam) PMLQ 25.7 69
Muttahhida Majlis-e-Amal Pakistan (islamist) MMA 11.3 53
Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) PMLN 9.4 14
National Alliance
– Sindh Democratic Alliance
– Millat Party
– Others
NA 4.6 12
Muttahhida Qaumi Movement (Federal National Movement, minority party)) MQM 3.1 13
Pakistan Muslim League (Functional) PMLF 1.1 4
Awami National Party   1.0
Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf () PTI 0.8 1
Pakistan Muslim League (Junejo) () PMJ 0.7 2
Pakistan Awami Tehrik () PAT 0.7 1
Pakistan Peoples Party (Sherpao) PPPS 0.3 2
Jamhoori Wattan Party JWP 0.3 1
Pakistan Muslim League (Zia-ul-Haq Shaheed) PMLZ 0.3 1
Pakistan Democratic Party PDP 0.3 1
Balochistan National Party BNP 0.2 1
Non-partisans   14.1 21
Female elected members   . 60
Minorities   . 10
Executive branch (cabinet): Cabinet appointed by the chief executive
Executive branch (chief of state): President Pervez MUSHARRAF (since 20 June 2001) note – MUSHARRAF is both chief of state and head of government
Executive branch (elections): legislative election last held 10 October 2002 (next to be held NA 2007); prior to the military takeover, Pakistan had an elected president and prime minister; the president was elected by Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 31 December 1997; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition was usually elected prime minister by the National Assembly
Executive branch (election results): results are for the 10 October 2002 election for prime minister – Mir Zafarullah Khan JAMALI elected prime minister (not a position of real power)
Executive branch (head of government): Chief Executive Pervez MUSHARRAF (since 12 May 2000) note – MUSHARRAF is both chief of state and head of government
Executive branch (note): following a military takeover on 12 October 1999, Chief of Army Staff and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, General Pervez MUSHARRAF, suspended Pakistan’s constitution and assumed the additional title of Chief Executive; exercising the powers of the head of the government, he appointed an eight-member National Security Council to function as Pakistan’s supreme governing body; on 12 May 2000, Pakistan’s Supreme Court unanimously validated the October 1999 coup and granted MUSHARRAF executive and legislative authority for three years from the coup date; on 20 June 2001, MUSHARRAF named himself as president and was sworn in, replacing Mohammad Rafiq TARAR; in a referendum held on 30 April 2002, MUSHARRAF’s presidency was extended by five more years
Executive summary:
President: Pervez Musharraf (2001, since 1999 chief executive)
Prime-minister: Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali (2002)
The president is self-appointed and the government is formed by supporters of the president. He was confirmed as president in a referendum in 2002.
Flag description: green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam
Government type: federal republic
Independence: 14 August 1947 (from UK)
International organization participation: AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), C (suspended), CCC, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNTAET, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president); Federal Islamic or Shari’a Court
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (100 seats – formerly 87; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies to serve six-year terms; one-third of the members up for election every two years) and the National Assembly (342 seats – formerly 217; 10 seats represent minorities; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
Legislative branch (elections): Senate – last held 12 March 1997 (next to be held by October 2002); National Assembly – last held 10 October 2002 (next to be held by October 2007)
Legislative branch (election results): Senate results are for the last election prior to the military takeover; – percent of vote by party – NA%; seats by party – PML/N 30, PPP 17, ANP 7, MQM 6, JWP 5, BNP 4, JUI/F 2, PML/J 2, BNM/H 1, PKMAP 1, TJP 1, independents 6, vacant 5; National Assembly results are for the 10 October 2002 election – percent of vote by party – NA%; seats by party – PPP 71, PML/Q 69, MMA 53, PML/N 14, MQM 13, MP 12, PML/F 4, PML/J 2, PPP/SB 2, female elected members 60, independents 21, minorities 10, others 11
Legislative branch (note): Gen. Pervez MUSHARRAF dismissed Parliament 15 October 1999
Legal system: based on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan’s status as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday: Republic Day, 23 March (1956)
Parliamentary seats {female}: 2%  [133th of 136]
Political parties and leaders: Awami National Party or ANP [Wali KHAN]; Balochistan National Movement/Hayee Group or BNM/H [Dr. HAYEE Baluch]; Baluch National Party or BNP [Sardar Akhtar MENGAL]; Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP [Akbar Khan BUGTI]; Jamiat-al-Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Fazlur Rehman faction or JUI/F [Fazlur REHMAN]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Niazi faction or JUP/NI [Abdul Sattar Khan NIAZI]; Millat Party or MP [Farooq LEGHARI]; Milli Yakjheti Council or MYC is an umbrella organization which includes Jamaat-i-Islami or JI [Qazi Hussain AHMED], Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami-ul-Haq faction or JUI/S [Sami ul-HAQ], Tehrik-I-Jafria Pakistan or TJP [Allama Sajid NAQVI], and Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Noorani faction or JUP/NO [Shah Ahmad NOORANI]; Mutahida Qaumi Movement, Altaf faction or MQM [Altaf HUSSAIN]; Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal Pakistan or MMA [NA leader]; National People’s Party or NPP [Ghulam Mustapha JATOI]; Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party or PKMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Pakhtun Quami Party or PQP [Mohammed AFZAL Khan]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan Democratic Party or PDP [Nawabadzada KHAN]; Pakistan Muslim League, Functional Group or PML/F [Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan Muslim League, Junejo faction or PML/J [Hamid Nasir CHATTHA]; Pakistan Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction or PML/N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan Muslim League, Quaid-l-Azam faction or PML/Q [Mian AZHAR]; Pakistan National Party or PNP [Hasil BIZENJO]; Pakistan People’s Party or PPP [Benazir BHUTTO]; Pakistan People’s Party/Shaheed Bhutto or PPP/SB [Ghinva BHUTTO]; Pakistan Tehrik-e-Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]
Political parties and leaders (note): political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently
Political pressure groups and leaders: military remains most important political force; ulema (clergy), landowners, industrialists, and small merchants also influential
Status: pseudo-democracy
Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal; separate electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for non-Muslims  [3th of 212]

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